The following article contains brief information about topics that are relevant and important for the civil service examination.
Comparison of Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries:
The role of the constitution is to make the government operate efficiently and in a responsible and fair manner.
It holds the government to the law and provides the distinction of power so that each part of the government remains equally powerful.
Let's see some schemes of the Indian constitution that are different from the rest of the countries' constitutions-
The Constitution of India is the lengthiest written constitution in the world.
India has the concept of single citizenship for every citizen and has one constitution (unlike America which has the concept of dual citizenship and has two constitutions- one of the USA and other of their respective State).
India is a Cooperative Federation which means that the Centre and the State are interdependent on each other, although Centre essays the role of the big brother.
In India, the Prime Minister and the Council of Minister’s aid and advises the President to run the government.
Parliament and State Legislatures: This topic is in Polity and is important both from the perspective of Prelims and Mains examination.
So, make sure you prepare this topic thoroughly.
The Indian Parliament consists of the President and Lok Sabha (House of the People) and Rajya Sabha (Council of States).
Parliament is the cardinal legislative body of India.
The members of Lok Sabha are elected by eligible voters and the members of the Rajya Sabha are elected by the elected members of State Legislative Assemblies.
Rajya Sabha consists of twelve members nominated by the President and there are less than 238 representatives of States and Union Territories.
In Lok Sabha, less than 530 members are chosen through direct election from the territorial constituencies of the State and less than 20 members represent Union Territories.
This was a piece of brief information on the Parliament and State Legislatures but you must ensure that you give this topic a comprehensive study.
The executive has become the most important part of the government as it provides leadership to the government. The Union Executive comprises the President, the Prime Minister & Council of Ministers and the Attorney-General of India.
The State Executive comprises the Governor, the Chief Minister & Council of Ministers and Advocate-General of State.
In Judiciary, the Supreme Court is the final court of appeal and consists of the Chief Justice of India, including 30 judges and other judges for advisory jurisdiction. Every state has one high court and consists of 94 judges out of which 71 are permanent and 23 are additional judges. District courts are subordinate to the high court and are established, keeping in mind the population of the district and state.
This was a brief about the Indian Executive and Judiciary.
All these topics should be a part of your 1-year strategy for UPSC as these topics are important for both the prelims and mains examinations.
All the best!