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Types of Pollution, Effects and Causes

Updated on 22 January 2021
study24x7
CBSE CLASS 8
23 min read 2 views
Updated on 22 January 2021

Nowadays, the environment and weather are changing frequently due to the exploitation done to nature by us. A lot of industrial waste leads to water pollution, air pollution and noise pollution. It has become difficult to breathe for people having asthma and other breathing disorders. Allergic reactions have also increased due to the ill-treatment of water sources. Development in various sectors is leading to a shortage of natural resources.


There are many types of pollution, out of which 4 – 5 are the major ones. The types include air pollution, water pollution, land pollution, noise pollution and thermal pollution. There are many other types like radioactive pollution, solid waste pollution, plastic pollution and many more. It is important to take care of yourself amidst such pollution and for that you must practice yoga and eat a healthy diet. Below is the list of the major types of pollution which affect the human body as well as the environment.   


Air Pollution is defined as the process of releasing waste from the chimneys of various factories or industries thereby making the air not fit for breathing. There are many other sources of air pollution like car emissions, dust etc. The polluted air leads to various diseases like asthma, heart diseases, lung cancer and other chronic diseases.


Pollutants like carbon dioxide, sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide and particulate matter are responsible for air pollution. In the hilly areas, almost every house has a fireplace and a chimney which is responsible for air pollution. One might not be aware but the ozone layer is somehow responsible for this air pollution. When the ozone layer comes in contact with the polluted air, it becomes smog. 


Smog is more dangerous than the air that we breathe in. Smog leads to irritation in the eyes, throat and lungs which can lead to sudden heart attacks, asthma attacks and other chronic ailments. These are some of the air pollution causes which can have some grave consequences on the body. Therefore, it is advised to wear masks and cover yourself up if at all you are moving out for work in smog. 


Effects of Air Pollution


Well, air pollution has many negative effects on the human body. But in terms of the environment, it is more dangerous. Below are some of the key points representing the effects of air pollution.



1. People can get diseases like asthma, heart diseases and other chronic ailments like lung cancer or Parkinson’s disease.


2. Air pollution can lead to global warming which is the result of the greenhouse effect. 


3. Air pollution also leads to climate change. The usual climate cycles are disturbed due to this.


4. Animal extinction is also caused by air pollution. Deforestation leads to the reduced quality of ecosystems which leads to animal extinction and loss of flora and fauna. Animals like jaguar, tigers, lions etc are extinct due to air pollution.             

 

5. Air pollution can lead to respiratory health problems as well. 


6. Many skin allergies are also associated with air pollution. That is why it is advisable to cover yourself up if you need to move out for some work. 


These are some of the effects related to air pollution. People must take care of themselves as air pollution has become a matter of grave concern for the WHO as well.


Now, let’s come to water pollution. Water pollution is defined as the pollution in which the water sources are exploited. Various substances and chemical waste is poured down into the nearby lakes or ponds which makes them dirty and poisonous. This degrades the quality of water thereby, making it toxic for humans to use. 


Now, what are the causes of water pollution? This is the main question. Majorly water pollution is caused due to industrial waste. Every industry releases its liquid or dry waste into the rivers thereby, making it polluted. Many initiatives have been taken by the government to save the depleting rivers. One of them is Cauvery Calling, in which the people take a step forward in cleaning the rivers. So far many rivers have been cleaned but not all. This initiative is being continued till now. 


Other causes of water pollution include poor sewage systems, marine dumping, chemical pesticides and fertilizers into rivers, oil leakage etc. This makes the rivers dirtier and polluted making it unfit for use. People also take a dip in these rivers or wash clothes beside the riverbanks which also makes them polluted. Therefore, more initiatives must be taken by the government to clean these rivers thereby avoiding them from depleting.  


Many diseases are associated with water pollution. Some of the water pollution effects include diseases like typhoid, cholera, hepatitis A & B and others. It also leads to the destruction of ecosystems and aquatic flora and fauna. Further, in water pollution, the water becomes unfit for drinking. It leads to the destruction of crops as polluted water reaches the plants thereby, destroying the plants. 


Environmental Pollution is defined as the pollution of physical and biological components. All types of pollution are included in environmental pollution. The diseases related are also the same. This pollution can lead to respiratory disorders, cardiovascular disorders, allergic reactions and many others.


Environmental pollution also has grave consequences on the environment. There is an increase in the greenhouse effect thereby leading to depletion of the ozone layer. This leads to smog which in turn leads to many harmful effects on the human body. Thus, one must take care of themselves so that they do not catch diseases related to different types of pollution.     


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