Ancient History is very vast topic for UPSE Exam and one of the most important topic as well, in this article we are going to Discuss about Raise of the Mauryan Empire and Chandragupta Mauryan, which is very much important if you are targeting UPSE 2020 Exam
The Mauryan Empire was founded by Chandragupta Maurya between 322 to 185 BCE. Originated in Magadha the Mauryan Empire is one of the largest empires in the world. The Mauryan Empire is known for its great administration and finance and dominated most of the Indian Subcontinent for a long time.
According to the Arthshastra of Kautaliya, the slaves did the agricultural work. Taxes were collected from peasants, artisans, and traders.
During the Mauryan rule, there was state control and the king was called the Dharmapravartaka who maintains the social order. The kings during their rule were expanding their empires and collected taxes in order to become more powerful.
There is said to be an absolute Monarchy during this period. The people had no say in the matters all decisions were made by the king. They had an espionage system to keep an eye on their foreign enemies.
The highest officers during the Mauryan rule were called the Tirthas and were mainly from the upper castes. There was a lot of economic gap between the people the payment to the highest officers was much more than to the lowest officers.
According to Arthashastra, the economy during the Mauryan age was maintained by 27 Adhyakshas who mainly took care of Agriculture, trade, commerce, crafts, and the water supply.
The water supply during this time had become important because of irrigation to make the soil more fertile produce surplus and collect taxes from the people.
We assume that domestic slaves existed during that time. Pillars were made in Chunar. There was a huge system of taxation during the Mauryan rule. There were two officers who have appointed for the tax collection Samaharta the tax accessor and Sannidhata the treasurer.
The Mauryas had very strong control over the economy of the state.
ART AND ARCHITECTURE
There was advanced stone masonry during this period. The blocks were converted into pillars. Stonework, burnt bricks, timber were being used at a huge scale during this period. The masonry was improving and there were more cities that were developing.
The pillars during this time were made of buff-colored sandstone and were huge. The pillars were about 45 to 60 ft tall. Cave Architecture also began during this period.
SPREAD OF MATERIAL CULTURE
In Material Culture, we find iron objects, punch mark coins, and the writings are found in the form of inscriptions and edicts. In the social contacts of traders, Janas, Buddhists were developing they were going from place to the other because their rulers were allowing them to do so.
There was rapid development of material culture during the Mauryan age, especially in the Gangetic Plains. Ring wells are found during this time. Many towns were also coming up. The material culture spread in Bengal, Kalinga, Andhara, and Karnataka.
The Art of making steel was also discovered around 200 BC.New settlements were being formed. Asoka wanted people to follow his own culture and asked people to
shift from tribal to a sedentary lifestyle. He did not want people to take to hunting and gathering instead wanted people to pay taxes and respect him so that he could become more powerful.
This particular topic is very important for UPSC 2020 Examination which will help you get a great score if prepared well.
All the best to All the aspirants of UPSE 2020 !