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Indian Constitution & Its 11 Salient Features

Updated on 29 December 2021
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UPSC & State PSC 2021
29 min read 18 views
Updated on 29 December 2021

What is the Constitution?


The word constitution comes from the Latin constitutes, which implies "to build up, develop," and the hyphen -ion, which means "to act, state, or condition." Assess a constitution to be the framework of a body (yours or the government's). 


The Constitution is widely regarded as the highest law of the land. It must be followed by all other provisions. It has a set of regulations that guide the government and how it interacts with residents. A constitution is determined by two primary issues: a) the association between different levels of government, and b) the connection between the people and the government.


On January 26, 1950, the Indian Constitution went into effect. The composing review panel was chaired by B. R. Ambedkar. It establishes the basic political code, framework, procedures, abilities, and responsibilities of government bodies. Also, it establishes fundamental rights, guiding principles, and citizen responsibilities. It is India's supreme law. Let us now look at the characteristics of the Indian constitution.


Salient Features of Constitution 


The lengthiest Constitution in the world


The Indian Constitution is the world's longest and most comprehensive written constitution. Specifically, because it includes not only basic human rights but also specific policy directives. Many establishments, such as the public sector, have been given constitutional status (under Article 308- 323).

Another factor contributing to the size of this Declaration is the fact that it adheres to the entire country of India. Because India is such a huge nation, it required the application of accurate regulations to various areas of the country. As a result, a comprehensive constitution was drafted.


Assembled from a variety of viewpoints


Aspects of our Constitution were taken from a variety of sources. The Government of India Act of 1935 provided the foundation for the main factors of our Constitution.

The following are the source of the Indian Constitution:


United States of America - Fundamental Rights, Judiciary Independence, Judicial Authority, Perjury of the President and Supreme Court Justices


United Kingdom - Single citizen, parliamentary government, the rule of law, and personal choice writs


Canada - Appointment of Governors, Quasi-Federal Government System


Australia - Sequential List, Joint Session of Two Houses of Parliament, Trade Freedom


USSR - Fundamental responsibilities, as well as social, economic, and political justice


Ireland  - Protocol Principles of State Policy, Presidential Election


Germany - Suspension of Fundamental Rights during a crisis is an example of an emergency provision.


France - Republic 


South Africa - Constitutional Amendment, Election of Rajya Sabha Members


Japan - The procedure is mandated by law.


Universal Adult Franchise


Our ancestors had the right to vote for every Indian citizen over the age of 21. It took many years for Western liberal democracy to grant everyone this freedom.


Citizenship by Oneself


The Indian Constitution provides for single citizenship. This means that anyone who acquires the citizenship rights of another country immediately loses their Indian citizenship. This concept of citizenship was influenced by the UK Constitution. People will benefit from the advancement of perks simply by becoming citizens. Only Indian nationals have the right to vote and be nominated for positions such as President and Member of Parliament.


The Judiciary's Independence


The Indian judicial system is largely independent and makes its own decisions. Judicial independence is crucial in a republic. It protects its residents from unauthorized or illegal processing by government agencies. Several fundamental rights are guaranteed by the Constitution. To safeguard such fundamental rights, the judicial system must exercise its powers under Articles 32 and 13.


read - how to memorize Indian constitution


A Quasi-Federal Republic's Constitution


The term "quasi-federal" refers to a situation that appears to be fully integrated but is not truly unified due to a massive lean toward centralized authority. In times of crisis, the Central Government wields far more power than state legislatures.


The parliamentary government structure


This form of government was encouraged by the British Constitution. India chose it because she was familiar with this type of democracy. This is known as a UK parliament. In this style of management, the executive is answerable to the legislation through various means and categories.


Balance of Rigidity and Flexibility


Most components of the Constitution, per the document, can be transformed by a simple majority in Parliament. Simultaneously, many clauses in Article 368 require a separate majority, especially in situations affecting state policy.


Principles of State Policy Directive


These are some of the concepts outlined in Articles 36–51. Such principles act as a guideline for such governments in evolving regulations required for public welfare. Although these ideas are illogical in court, the state has passed various laws as a result wherein all of these concepts have become absolute rights. Article 21 A's Right to Education is the most prominent example. This was previously a Directive principle, but legislation has since been implemented and included in the Fundamental Rights, making it a legitimate lawful authority.


Fundamental Responsibilities


These functions were not included in the original Constitution, but they were later deemed necessary. Introducing the Soviet Union, India's government was assigned 11 Fundamental Duties under Article 51 A of the Constitution. They were established in 1976 as part of the 42nd Amendment to the United States Constitution. The government believed that Indian nationals were required to adopt these value systems to show respect for our country.


Fundamental liberties


Part 3 of India's Constitution establishes fundamental rights (Article 12-35). These are the universal values that every Indian citizen has. Articles 15, 16, 19, 29, and 30 are available to all Indian citizens. Except for citizens of hostile countries, everyone who lives in this country has the right to the provisions of Articles 14, 20, 21, 21A, 23, 24, and 25-28.


Conclusion 


Laws are the rules that legislatures (also known as Lok Sabha/Rajya Sabha in India) enact for their respective countries. Laws are essential for a country to govern and function properly. These are intended to protect us and our property, as well as to ensure that everyone in society behaves in the way that the community expects. Laws specify what we can expect to happen as a result of our actions. Laws have been the unifying force that has held society together. There would be complete lunacy if there were no laws.


In recent years, both researchers and educationalists have placed a greater emphasis on constitutions. It was hardly surprising, given that constitutions serve as the foundation of almost everyone's government these days. At the same time, they produce, strengthen, and enforce the entities that govern society. As a result, they are integrally linked to social welfare. Government, financial outlook, and social stability are all linked to a nation's laws.

 


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