The UPSC 2020 vacancy civil services will be announced in February along with the other details. Make sure you read it thoroughly and carefully fill the form. Here is brief information about certain topics that are important for UPSC 2020.
1. Economic liberalization means that the rules and regulations of a country have been relaxed by the government so that private players can participate and conduct business transactions with very few restrictions. The economic effects can be very intense for the country and the investors when a country gets liberalized. The free flow of capital between countries, competitive advantages and the effectual allocation of resources are the major objectives of economic liberalization.
When the country relaxes its laws, the value of stock markets increases. The behavior of the stock market is an indicator of the growth of an economy.
Liberalization also decreases the political risks to the investors. More foreign investment can be attracted through the liberalization of economic policies.
The areas that support the business environment in a country are fair and enforceable contract laws, strong legal foundation to settle disputes, property laws, and others that allow businesses and investors to operate with confidence.
With the help of technology and globalization, the transfer of real human labor across countries has been made possible without the transfer of humans themselves.
2. Infrastructure is the most essential and critical component for any country's development as it provides basic facilities for the smooth functioning of society. Infrastructure is the physical structure that is needed for the operation of civilization or enterprises.
Although India has the second-largest network of roads, they are of little use if they are not properly constructed or serviced. The National Highways account for only 2.0 percent of the total length of Indian roads.
The National Highways Development Programme (NHDP)-I (Golden Quadrilateral) and NHDP-II (North-South East West links) have provided some respite but some work is still left to be completed. In the Eleventh Plan, a new programme to construct roads in the North-East was started, including the Trans-Arunachal Highway.
Railway contributes significantly to the economic development of the country. It is vital for freight movement.
These have a smaller carbon footprint and are much more efficient than road transport. With 22 million passengers every day and 923 million tonnes of freight a year, Indian Railways is one of the largest rail networks in the world.