Ancient History is very vast topic for UPSE Exam and one of the most important topic as well, in this article we are going to Discuss about Harappan Civilization , which is very much important if you are targeting UPSE 2020 Exam
The Harappan Agriculture
The concept of town planning in Harappa was sophisticated. Excavated remains show that it possessed a flourishing Urban Architecture.
Harappa was laid out on a grid pattern and had an advanced drainage system. The streets in Harappa
went from east to west and each street had a well-organized drainage system.
Each city in Harappa was surrounded by massive walls and gateways. The massive walls were built in order to stop the city from being flooded and also to control trade.
There was no stone-built house in Harappa. The roofs were flat and were made of wood and staircases of big buildings were solid. Burnt bricks and sun-dried bricks were used for buildings. The buildings also consisted of an open terrace flanked by rooms.
The Acropolis And The Lower Cities
Two sections were:
● Assembly halls, religious structures, granaries and the great bath in the case of Mohenjo-Daro
were important buildings of the Acropolis.
● The lower section of the city was where the houses for the inhabitants were located. The city
was connected which broad roads about 30 meters long which met at right angles. The houses
were located in the rectangular squares.
External Drainage System
The most prominent feature of the Harappa era architecture is the drainage system. It shows how
important was cleanliness to them and it was achieved through having a series of drains running along the streets that connected to larger sewers in the main streets.
Smaller drains from household latrines connected to these larger drains, which had corbelled roofs so they could be buried underneath the main streets when required without caving in. These were regularly cleaned to avoid blockages.
Every house consisted of wells, drains, and bathrooms. The in-house well is a common feature of the
The Granary is one of the largest buildings found in Mohenjo-Daro, running 150 feet long, 75 feet wide and 15 feet high It was well ventilated and it was possible to fill from outside. The granary shows traces of agricultural civilization because of it’s large size.
There are no traces of temple architecture or other religious places, yet the people practiced religion.
Although religious practices took place in The Great Bath.
The Great Bath
The overall dimension of the Great Bath is 180 feet by 108 feet. The pool measured about 39 feet by 23 feet with 8 feet depth. There is a device to fill and empty the water of the bathing pool and the pool is encircled with galleries and rooms. There were two wide staircases from north and south. The water was provided by a well in an adjacent room.
Varying types of houses and buildings are found in the Harappa architecture. Rural Areas consisted of mud-brick buildings whereas the buildings in urban areas were constructed by baked bricks. Small and large houses and public buildings are the main categories. Houses range from 1-2 stories in height, with a central courtyard around which rooms are arranged.
This was the Harappan architecture which according to the UPSC 2020 schedule is an important topic for the exam. The UPSC 2020 notification will be out on 12th February. Keep yourself updated in case of any changes.