The First World War paved way for the Second World War. It was primarily because of the Treaty of Versailles. The two groups the Allies were Britain, France, USSR, USA, and China vs. Axis Powers who were Germany, Italy, and Japan
CAUSES OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR (1939-1945)
Humiliation by the Treaty of Versailles
- Protection or insurance against future loss or damage
- Provision for disarming Germany
- Polish Corridor was given to Poland
- The city of Danzig was made free
- Saar coal mine to France for 15 years
GROWTH OF FASCISM AND NAZISM
- Mussolini (Italy) and Hitler strongly glorified war and violence
- The time when West was fighting communism, Germany and Italy started massive militarization
RISE OF JAPAN
- Rome-Berlin-Tokyo axis (1936)
NEGLECT OF MINORITY INTERESTS
After the First World War Countries like Poland, Czechoslovakia and Austria were formed. During drawing boundaries, the interests of minority groups in each of these countries were neglected.
- Allies – Britain, France, USA, USSR, and China vs. Axis Powers – Germany, Italy, and Japan
- The leaders were Churchill of Britain, Roosevelt of USA and Stalin of USSR.
GERMANY’S ATTACK ON CZECHOSLOVAKIA
In spite of the Munich Pact between Germany and Britain in 1938, Germany reattacked and sized Czechoslovakia
IMMEDIATE CAUSE WAS GERMANY’S INVASION OF POLAND (1st September 1939)
- Germany annexed the polished corridor and Danzig city. The sudden attack on Poland is known as Blitzkrieg
- Britain and France declared war on Germany
COURSE OF THE WAR
- The War began on September 1, 1939.
- Germany conquered Poland, Norway, Denmark, Belgium, Holland, and France
- Battle of Britain- Germany vs. Britain(air battle, German Air Force= Luftwaffe)
- Battle of Stalingrad- Germany vs. USSR (Operation of Barbarossa 1941= Attack on Yugoslavia and Greece, Russia countered the attack on Moscow with Scorched Earth Policy)
- Atlantic Charter (August 1941) between Churchill and Roosevelt USA.
- Pearl Harbour attack (7th December 1941)- Japan on the USA
- Italy vs. UK in Africa 1942 – countries like Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, British Somaliland, Eritrea
- France was captured by Germany in 1940, but France was liberated by British and American troop in 1944
- Atom bomb- Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
CONSEQUENCES OF SECOND WORLD WAR
- End of colonialism and imperialism
- End of dictatorship in Germany and Italy
- Germany was then divided into West Germany and East Germany. West Germany was under Britain France and the USA and East Germany by USSR
- Strengthening of nationalist movements in Africa and Asia.
- 5 crore deaths (2.2 crore soldiers and 2.8 crore civilians)
- Economic problems – Unemployment, low growth, etc.
- The emergence of two power blocks- the USA and the USSR. This resulted in the cold war
- The emergence of the Third World Countries
- UNO was set up in 1945
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