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World History - Industrial Revolution for UPSC 2020

Updated on 15 February 2020
UPSC & State PSC 2021
6 min read 2 views
Updated on 15 February 2020

As per the expert analysis World history holds a very good position in UPSC 2020 Examination, so in this article we are going to discuss the topic Industrial Revolution which comes under World history,

The industrial revolution began in England and soon spread to Continental Europe and North America. It began in the period between 1750 to 1860. Textile Industry was the first major industry to experience the industrial revolution.

However, it was the Agricultural Revolution in England that paved the way for the Industrial Revolution. 


Before the Industrial Revolution began most people lived and worked in farms, nobles had full control of the land. Agricultural methods remained unchanged for a long time. Communication between towns and cities was slow and very rare. People rarely traveled. Mining land or working out of homes were the ways to earn some income. There were a short life expectancy and a high infant mortality rate during that time. The system whereby had some advantages like the workers could work according to their own hours, women could do their domestic duties and children too could work with their parents. 


The revolution happened in England because: 

  • Despite taking part in many wars none of those struggles affected British soil. Their military and political successes put them in a positive attitude. The general peace and political stability was an important factor. 
  • Increased good labor supply. More skilled and educated people were available 
  • England was rich in coal, Iron ore, waterways and resources from colonies 
  • New markets were available because colonies provided markets to sell finished goods 
  • They had the support of the government because of their political stability because of the long-surviving constitutional monarchy 
  • No rigid class system and work ethics were admired 


  • Industrial Revolution was spread by the wealthy industrialist to countries in a way to earn profit 
  • Factories and railroads were being built in colonies 
  • Countries like France, Germany and the United States follow the Industrial Revolution 
  • The United States along with England and Germany ranks as one of the three most industrial countries in the world by the year 1870 


It changed England drastically in its character and its culture 

The Economic Effects 

  • New inventions and developments took place 
  • The Industry was growing rapidly 
  • There was a growth of trade worldwide 
  • Production increased and the demand for raw materials also increased 
  • The population explosion was one of the effects 
  • Agriculture, travel, and transport advanced 
  • Development of the finance system and banking took place 

The Social Effects 

  • Existence of long working hours 
  • There was pressure on the cities due to the population growth 
  • Poor city planning 
  • The middle class was beginning to expand 
  • New jobs were created and there was an improvement in the wages 
  • The technology was progressing rapidly 

The Political Effects 

  • The Child Labour laws were enacted 
  • Social reform movements like socialism and Marxism etc and reformers were rising 
  • Rise of Trade Unions 
  • Reform bills 

Some major impacts include: 

  • Rising Middle class 
  • Growth of the Urban Poor 
  • Pathetic working conditions 
  • Poor conditions for female workers 
  • Urbanization 


  • Increased competition between industrialized countries 
  • Rise in Global Inequality. The gap between industrialized and non-industrialized countries widened leading to the creation of third world countries 
  • The shift in the balance of power 
  • Less developed countries became a source of raw material and markets this led to a large inequality 
  • Industrialization caused the rise of Colonialism and Imperialism 

strategy for UPSC 2020 is to solve the test series and passed years question papers daily and you would surely crack the examination. The UPSC IAS 2020 calendar includes the important dates of the UPSC examination so do keep a track of it. 

All the Best To All The UPSC 2020 Aspirants !

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