Electric Current and its Effects Class 7 Notes - Study24x7
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Electric Current and its Effects Class 7 Notes

Updated on 14 May 2024
21 min read 5 views
Updated on 14 May 2024

Here's a comprehensive explanation of "Electric Current and its Effects" for Class 7 students:

Introduction to Electric Current:

Electricity is a form of energy that powers our homes, industries, and everyday devices. Electric current is a fundamental concept in electricity, referring to the flow of electric charge through a conductor. Understanding electric current and its effects is essential for comprehending how electricity works and its various applications in our lives.

What is Electric Current?

Electric current is the flow of electric charge through a conductor, such as a wire. It is measured in amperes (A) and is represented by the symbol "I." The direction of electric current is defined as the direction in which positive charges would flow if they could move freely. In most conductors, such as metals, electric current is carried by negatively charged electrons moving from the negative terminal to the positive terminal of a voltage source, such as a battery or power supply.

Factors Affecting Electric Current:

Several factors influence the magnitude of electric current in a circuit:

  1. Voltage (Potential Difference):
  2. Voltage, also known as potential difference, is the driving force that causes electric charges to flow in a circuit.
  3. Higher voltage leads to greater electric current, while lower voltage results in lower current.
  4. Resistance:
  5. Resistance is the opposition to the flow of electric current in a conductor.
  6. Higher resistance leads to lower electric current, while lower resistance allows for higher current flow.
  7. Resistance depends on factors such as the material, length, cross-sectional area, and temperature of the conductor.
  8. Conductor Material:
  9. Different materials have different conductivities, affecting their ability to conduct electric current.
  10. Metals, such as copper and aluminum, are excellent conductors of electricity due to their high conductivity.

Effects of Electric Current:

Electric current produces several effects when it flows through a conductor:

  1. Heating Effect:
  2. When electric current passes through a conductor, it encounters resistance, which causes the conductor to heat up.
  3. This heating effect is utilized in devices such as electric heaters, toasters, and electric irons, where electrical energy is converted into heat energy.
  4. Magnetic Effect:
  5. Electric current produces a magnetic field around the conductor, according to Ampere's law.
  6. This magnetic effect is the basis for electromagnets, electric motors, and generators, which rely on the interaction between electric current and magnetic fields.
  7. Chemical Effect (Electrolysis):
  8. Electric current can cause chemical changes when passed through an electrolyte solution or a molten electrolyte.
  9. This chemical effect is utilized in processes such as electroplating, electrolytic refining, and the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen gases.

Practical Applications of Electric Current:

Electric current and its effects have numerous practical applications in various fields:

  1. Electrical Appliances:
  2. Electric current powers household appliances such as refrigerators, televisions, computers, and washing machines.
  3. These appliances utilize the heating, magnetic, and chemical effects of electric current to perform their functions.
  4. Industrial Processes:
  5. Industries use electric current for processes such as welding, electroplating, metal smelting, and chemical synthesis.
  6. The heating, magnetic, and chemical effects of electric current play crucial roles in these industrial processes.
  7. Transportation:
  8. Electric current powers electric vehicles, trains, and trams, providing an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuel-powered vehicles.
  9. Electric motors, driven by electric current, propel these vehicles forward.
  10. Communication and Electronics:
  11. Electric current enables communication technologies such as telephones, radios, televisions, and computers.
  12. These devices utilize electric circuits and components to process and transmit information.

Safety Precautions:

While electric current has numerous benefits, it can also pose risks if not handled properly. Here are some safety precautions to follow:

  1. Avoid Overloading Circuits:
  2. Do not connect too many devices to a single electrical outlet, as it can lead to overheating and fire hazards.
  3. Use Insulation:
  4. Ensure that electrical wires and appliances are properly insulated to prevent electric shocks and short circuits.
  5. Turn Off Power Before Working:
  6. Always turn off the power supply before working on electrical circuits or appliances to avoid electrocution.
  7. Keep Water Away from Electricity:
  8. Water and electricity do not mix well. Keep electrical appliances away from water sources to prevent electric shocks and short circuits.


Electric current and its effects are fundamental concepts in electricity, with wide-ranging applications in our daily lives, industries, and technology. By understanding the behavior of electric current and its effects, we can harness its power for various practical purposes while ensuring safety and efficiency in electrical systems and devices. Through proper education, awareness, and adherence to safety precautions, we can utilize electric current responsibly and enjoy its benefits while minimizing risks and hazards.

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