The battles of Panipat are a popular question from a historical and current affairs perspective in competitive entrance exams like the UPSC, Railways and SSC. Here are the things you should know about them:
There were 3 battles at Panipat -
The first battle occurred in 1526, between Babur and Ibrahim Lodhi, laying the foundation for the Mughal empire in India.
The second battle occurred 30 years later and re-established the Mughal empire under Akbar in Delhi.
The third battle of Panipat took place in 1761, between the Maratha empire and the invading Afghan army.
First Battle Of Panipat
The first battle was a massive war, involving 75,000 soldiers from both ends, gunpowder and field guns. The smaller Timurid army (led by Barbar) and his son Humayun won on account of musket guns, which not only killed the opposition, but also frightened Lodi’s elephants, which ran away, trampling their own men.Lodi died in battle alongside 20,000 of his troops, paving the way for a Mughal dynasty on the Delhi sultanate.
Second Battle Of Panipat
The second battle of Panipat saw the Mughal army under a 13-year-old Akbar face off against Hem Chandra Vikramaditya or Hemu. In the 30 years between the two battles, Humayun had lost control of Delhi and Hemu was the new ruler of the capital city.Here too, the numerically superior army under Hemu, with 500 war elephants and 30,000 cavalry lost to the 10,000 cavalry-strong Mughal forces.The mughals won by a superior artillery attack and by targeting the elephants, which began to rampage and trample their own army.
Third Battle Of Panipat
The third battle of Panipat between the Afghan and Maratha empire occurred nearly 200 years after the first two battles. Here, the Maratha front, led by Sadashivrao Bhau led 20,000 cavalry and 9000 infantry into battle against Ahmad Shah Abdali (also known as Ahmed Shah Durrani)’s 60,000 cavalry, 40,000 Rohilla infantry, 10,000 reserve troops and 5000 Turkish warriors
This battle is the most important among the three as it saw the declining Maratha empire lose to Afghan troops, even though the Maratha side had managed a ferocious fight during the early phase of the battle.5000 Turkish musketeers on camel back and reserve troops finished the Maratha side.The battle was also the most brutal of the three.
The Durrani side issued orders to execute non-combatants on the Maratha end and their own soldiers who were attempting to flee the battle.
Important Question From Exam Perspective
Q1. Important aspect of Indian medieval history.
Q2. Role of guns in winning wars.
Q3. When was third panipat happened ?
Q4. Why the 3 battle of panipath occurred ?
Q5. What was the third battle of Panipat all about? Examine whether the battle
had distinctly religious undertones? What were the consequences of the
Q6. who were involved in first Battle of Panipat ? What causes the battle and
what was the outcome ?
Q7. who were involved in second Battle of Panipat ? What causes the battle and
what was the outcome ?
Q8. who were involved in Third Battle of Panipat ? What causes the battle and