The term Nationalism is determined by an individual’s loyalty and devotion to the nation-state. Nationalism was aroused at the end of the 18th century. People who are attached to their homeland, traditions, and regional land will come under Nationalism. Nationalism was spread in the early 19th century, to eastern and southeastern Europe and at the beginning of the 20th century. It was first initiated in Asia and Africa.
Now, what is Nationalism in history? is one of the most common questions that is asked in the exam. Hence, students must be well aware of this topic to score full marks in their examination.
However, before proceeding further, there is a lot of confusion among students to differentiate between nationalism and patriotism so let's first understand the meaning of patriotism.
WHAT IS PATRIOTISM?
The term PATRIOTISM is defined as love for or devotion to one’s country. There are some definitions involving patriotism which are given below:
- Love for one’s own country
- A sense of self-identification with the nation
- Special responsibility for the well-being of the country
- Willingness to sacrifice the country’s god
Nationalism vs Patriotism
- The word patriotism is a noun that means “devoted love, support and defence of one’s country; national loyalty.” Patriotism nurtures a feeling of responsibility in the citizens.
- The term patriotism is often used by the people who are involved in the defence of a nation, local government representatives and military service.
- The word Nationalism is a noun that means “the interests of one’s own nation". NATIONALISM breeds ignorance and it leads to war.
SOME STATEMENTS THAT WILL DISTINGUISH PATRIOTISM AND NATIONALISM:
I can die for my country
I can kill in the name of my country
I respect my country’s armed forces but I will call them out if they were wrong.
I respect my country’s armed forces and I will support whatever they do.
TYPES OF NATIONALISM:
In general, there are 5 main types of nationalism. They are Civic nationalism, ethnic nationalism, cultural nationalism, religious nationalism and racial nationalism. Each of these types of nationalism has its own positives and negatives, which are often subjective to the individual’s /group’s identity, such as their culture, ethnicity, race and religion.
Civic nationalism, also known as liberal nationalism. Those who believe in freedom, tolerance, equality and individual rights are known as Civic nationalism.
Ethnic nationalism, also known as ethnonationalism. Ethnic nationalism is defined in terms of ethnicity and also by its shared heritage which includes a common language, culture shared by a particular group and their traditions.
Cultural nationalism is defined in a way that the culture is shared and focused on a national identity shaped by cultural traditions.
Racial nationalism is nothing but a racial definition of its traditions, culture, and language.
Religious nationalism is nationalism that defines a specific religious opinion, faith, and affiliation.
CHARACTERISTICS OF NATIONALISM:
The four main characteristics of NATIONALISM are Autonomy, National Identity, Self-determination, Solitary. Some of the characteristics are given below,
- Nationalism considers sovereignty as a tool to protect the country and its citizens.
- The element behind Patriotism is Nationality.
- Culture, Art, Poetry & literature are the means for depicting national pride and inspiring racial sentiments.
IMPORTANCE OF NATIONALISM:
Nationalism is important because people have naturally organized themselves into groups with common interests, goals, people who speak the same language, share the ethnicity, faith, culture, traditions, etc. Nationalism plays a vital role in every citizen's life.
EXAMPLES OF NATIONALISM:
1. In the Battle of New Orleans, Andrew Jackson boosted American's sense of superiority over Britain. This example shows his Nationalism towards his country America.
2. Waving flags and singing the anthem at each event shows their nationality towards their country.
3. During the CommonWealth Game, every citizen of each country will support their nations, this shows nationalism towards their nation.
The above examples of nationalism can be used for good purposes or bad purposes depending upon the nations coming together in order to fulfill the nation.
We have explored a lot about Nationalism in the above passages. We hope that students are clear about what is nationalism in history. Thus here we come to the conclusion that Nationalism has made a lot of difference in globalization.