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Hydroelectricity and Hydro Power Plant in India

Updated on 21 January 2022
7 min read 4 views
Updated on 21 January 2022

Hydroelectricity is defined as the current exerted by the generator that is influenced or pushed by the motion of water i.e. water movement. A hydroelectric power station or plant produces and utilizes the energy provided by the water which is falling and helps in generating electricity. In this process, the kinetic energy is transformed into mechanical energy. Further, the mechanical energy is transformed into electrical energy with the help of the generator. 

Hydroelectricity is basically the electricity which is produced with the help of the power of the movement of water. There are many hydroelectric power stations all over the country that balances the falling water and helps in generating electricity. Some of the hydroelectric power plants are located in Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Kerala and many more.

There are around 197 hydroelectric power plants in India. Koyna Hydroelectric power plant is the largest hydroelectric power plant in India. It is located in Patan, around Satara District (Maharashtra). It is a combination of four dams, the largest dam being on the Konya River. Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh produce most of the hydroelectric power in India.  

A Hydroelectric Dam is defined as a huge, man-made structure built to channelize the flow of water. It can contain huge volumes of water. It is one of the important factors affecting hydroelectricity. The flow of the river is channelized thereby, preventing any chances of floods. Some of the hydroelectric dams in India are listed below.


Name of the Dam

Name of the River



Tehri Dam






Andhra Pradesh


Sardar Sarovar




Bhakra Dam




Chamera – I


Himachal Pradesh




Himachal Pradesh




Jammu & Kashmir






Dhauliganga – I



Out of these, Tehri Dam in Uttarakhand is the largest dam followed by the Hirakud Dam in Odisha which is the longest dam. The Oldest dam in India is the Kallanai Dam in Tamil Nadu. 

Now, students often ponder upon the fact that what is hydroelectric power how it works? Well, hydroelectric power channelizes the flow of the river thereby preventing floods. Several dams are built in order to balance the river flow. Now, in hydropower plants, the water flow runs through a pipe which is followed by pushing and exerting pressure on the turbine. 

This leads to the spinning of the generator which produces electricity at last. The water which is overflowed returns in a downstream direction back to the dam. The electricity generated is further segregated and distributed among the power plant customers. Thus, the kinetic energy turns into mechanical energy which further turns into electric energy.

This will be understood in a better way by the following diagram. This hydroelectric power plant diagram will help you in understanding how the power stations work. 

A general layout of hydro-power plant | Download Scientific Diagram

Now, let’s talk about the run of river hydropower. The run of river hydropower is defined as the reservoir in which a negligible or zero amount of water is stored. This reservoir is also called as pondage. Now, how does it work? The flowing water is re-routed to the pipe where the water is drawn back to the channel which further leads to the generating house. Then, the flowing water leads to the spinning of the turbine. The water comes back to the river after the electricity has been generated.  

The Hydroelectric power plant is a way of generating electricity by channelizing the rivers. Many power stations have been built on various rivers to channelize the flow and prevent the cities from having floods. This is the hydroelectric power plant definition. The electricity generated helps in balancing the river flow. Each city has at least one dam which helps in preventing floods. Thus, hydropower and hydroelectricity help in channelizing the flow of the rivers thereby preventing any unnatural calamities.

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