The population problem is increasing at a fast rate where on average about 250 babies are born in India every minute adding to the already rising stats of the population. India ranks number 2 in the list of countries having a maximum population, contributing to almost 17% of the total world population. The population problem in India has caused harmful effects not only on humanity but also on the atmosphere. The population is rising not only in India but in almost every country which has caused overpopulation throughout the world.
Overpopulation is the term used to denote the unfortunate condition when the number of an existing population exceeds the actual carrying capacity of the Earth.
This sudden rise in population or overpopulation has 2 major causes
1. Decreasing Death Rate- This is the root of overpopulation where the difference between the overall birth rate equals the overall death rate. If the number of children born each year is equal to the number of people who die in a year then the population will remain constant. However, if the number of children born in the year is more than the number of people who die in a year then this leads to overpopulation.
2. Increase in average human age- Average human age has increased due to various factors such as an increase in medical facilities, shift from hunter-gatherers to agriculture, and so on. All of these factors should be held responsible for the increase in population.
Population problem in India
It is observed that the population problem in India faces a considerable increase over the past 50 years due to widespread development in every sphere of life. The present population of India in 2020 is approximately around 1,380,004,385. The below graph shows that our population has increased to around 2% every year since Independence.
The causes of population Increase in India are-
1. The practice of early marriage or child marriage is one of the root causes of overpopulation in India as it gives a wider reproductive period
2. Lack of family planning
3. Unawareness among people living in rural areas regarding birth control measures
4. Institution of Polygamy- The practice to marry multiple spouses is another reason for overpopulation
5. India’s tropical climate which leads to early puberty in male and females.
The causes of the decline in death rate are-
1. Control the spread of famines in India due to the development of transportation.
2. Increase in Medical facilities leads to control in dreaded diseases like malaria, TB, chickenpox, etc.
3. Improvement in overall hygiene among people
4. Supply of pure drinking water controlled the deaths related to water-borne diseases
5. Improvement in standard of living due to overall economic development
6. Rise in awareness among people due to technological advances
Overpopulation problems are not limited to the individual level but the entire nature as a whole. We are listing some of the problems caused by population below-
Loss of Fresh Water- Overpopulation has reduced the water table to a great extent. According to the global outlook for water resources it is estimated that more than half of the population will be facing a water crisis by the year 2025. According to a report, overpopulation leads to consumption of water at least 10 times faster than it is being replenished in the regions of India.
Food Shortage- Overpopulation leads to more feeding mouths and less food because the production or harvesting time of crops remains the same as before but the number of people to be fed has increased many times. This leads to more intensive farming techniques to produce more food in a short period
Unemployment- Exceed in the number of people than the available jobs has caused unemployment not only in India but worldwide. Unemployment leads to poverty and malnutrition among people.
Environmental Degradation- More people means more use of natural or man-made resources which causes widespread pollution. Cutting down trees or forest areas to build factories has become common under the name of industrialization and modernization. All these factors lead to environmental degradation
Depletion of Natural Resources- As the human population continues to rise, the availability of finite natural resources like fresh water, fossil fuels arable lands, etc., continues to fall. Reason behind this is more people means more usage of resources.
Increased Emergence of New Pandemics- According to a WHO report overpopulation caused a rapid increase in diseases due to overcrowding and environmental degradation. Every second a young child dies due to infectious diseases. Coronavirus pandemic is one of the examples of this.
Increase Global Warming and Climate Change- More and more usage of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide is the major reason for the rise in humidity in the earth's atmosphere.
World Populations Problems and Solution
We have addressed the major problems now the question here is what is the solution? So the answer to this world population problem and solution is taking appropriate steps such as making more strict laws for the countries emitting more greenhouse gases. Fine and punishment to the industrial sector who is emitting more greenhouse gases etc.
The rising population has already caused more harm to nature than expected and has become a matter of concern among people. It is important to take appropriate measures before it has caused irreversible damage to nature. At the individual level also we can contribute to overpopulation problems by not harming nature and by adapting sustainable development methods.