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Class 12th Biology Full Syllabus and Curriculum

Updated on 30 March 2021
6 min read 5 views
Updated on 30 March 2021

Class 12 is the most crucial stage in a student’s life as after clearing this class, they have to choose a career for themselves. Students must lay a good foundation by clearing their basics in this class as that will help them in their further studies. So, the first step towards scoring good marks and acing this class is to know the complete syllabus. 

Knowing the syllabus is very important as that will help you to understand the subjects and make you aware of the topics expected in the examination. So, in this article, we will focus on the biology syllabus. However, before proceeding further, students must know that CBSE has reduced 30% syllabus this year. Hence, some of the units and chapters in biology are completely removed in the 2021 examination. So, students can take the help of this article to know the class 12th Biology Full syllabus. 

Class 12th Biology Full Syllabus: 








Genetics and Evolution



Biology and Human Welfare 



Biotechnology and its Applications



Ecology and Environment 


70 Marks Total 

We have mentioned the exact units, topics and the respective marks in the biology 2021 exam. Students have to study these units and topics only. 

Now, let us take a look at the Detailed Chapters asked in each unit below. 

Unit- VI: Reproduction

Chapter 2- Sexual Reproduction in Flowering plants 

  1. Flower Structure 
  2. Development of Male and Female 
  3. Pollination- types, agencies, examples 
  4. Outbreeding devices 
  5. Pollen-Pistil interaction 
  6. Double fertilization
  7. Post Fertilization events- Development of endosperm and embryo
  8. Development of seed and formation of fruit 
  9. Special modes- Apomixis, Parthenocarpy, Polyembryony 
  10. Significance of seed and fruit formation 

Chapter 3- Human Reproduction

  1. Male and Female reproductive systems 
  2. Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary 
  3. Gametogenesis- Spermatogenesis, oogenesis
  4. Menstrual cycle 
  5. Fertilisation, Embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea) 
  6. Parturition ( Elementary idea)
  7. Lactation (Elementary idea) 

Chapter 4- Reproductive Health 

  1. Need for Reproductive Health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD)
  2. Birth Control- Needs and Methods, Contraception, Medical termination of pregnancy (MTP)
  3. Amniocentesis
  4. Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies- IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness) 

UNIT- VII: Genetics and Evolution 

Chapter 5- Principles of Inheritance and variation

  1. Mendelian Inheritance 
  2. Deviations from Mendelian- Incomplete Dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles, inheritance of blood group, Pleiotropy 
  3. Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance 
  4. Chromosome theory of inheritance
  5. Chromosomes and genes 
  6. Sex determination in - humans, birds, honey bees 
  7. Linkage and crossing over 
  8. Sex Linked inheritance- Haemophilia, color blindness
  9. Mendelian disorder in humans- Thalassemia
  10. Chromosomal disorders in human- Down’s syndrome, Turner’s, Klinefelter’s syndromes

Chapter 6- Molecular Basis of Inheritance

  1. Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material
  2. Structure of DNA and RNA
  3. DNA Packaging
  4. DNA replication 
  5. Central Dogma
  6. Transcription, genetic code, translation
  7. Gene Expression and regulation- Lac Operon 
  8. Genome and human genome project 
  9. DNA fingerprinting

UNIT VIII: Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter 8: Human Health and Diseases 

  1. Pathogens- parasites causing human diseases- Malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, Common cold, amoebiasis, ringworm
  2.  Basic concepts of immunology- Vaccines- Cancer, HIV, AIDS 

Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare 

  1. Microbes in food processing 
  2. Industrial production 
  3. Sewage treatment 
  4. Energy generation and as bio-control agents 
  5. Biofertilizers 
  6. Antibiotics- Production and judicious use 

UNIT IX: Biotechnology and its Application 

Chapter 11: Biotechnology- Principles and processes 

Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology) 

Chapter 12: Biotechnology and its applications

  1. Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture- Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy, genetically modified organisms (Bt crops), Transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents

UNIT X: Ecology and environment

Chapter 13: Organisms and populations

  1. Organisms and environment- Habitat, Niche, Population, Ecological adaptations
  2. Population interactions- Mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism
  3. Population attributes- Growth, Birth rate, Death rate, age distribution 

Chapter 15: Biodiversity and its conservation 

  1. Concept of biodiversity 
  2. Patterns of biodiversity
  3. Importance of biodiversity
  4. Loss of biodiversity
  5. Biodiversity conservation- Hotspots, Endangered organisms, extinction, Red data book, Biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries, Ramsar sites 

We saw the complete class 12 biology theory syllabus above. Now let’s come to the Practical syllabus. 


Part A: List of experiments 

1. Prepare a temporary mount to observe pollen germination. 

2. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study its texture, moisture content, pH and water holding capacity. Correlated with the kinds of plants found in them. 

3. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH, clarity and presence of any living organism. 

4. Prepare a temporary onion root tip to study mitosis. 

5. Study the effect of different temperatures or three different pH on the activity of salivary amylase on starch. 

6. Isolate DNA from available plan material such as spinach, green pea seeds, papaya, etc. 

Part B: Study/Observation of the following (Spotting) 

1. Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (winds, insects and birds)

2. Identification of stages of gamete development i.e T.S of testis and T.S of ovaries through permanent slides (grasshopper/mice) 

3. Meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent slides

4. T.S of blastula through permanent slides (Mammalian). 

5. Prepared pedigree charts of any one of the genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, ear lobes, widow’s peak and color blindness. 

6. Common disease causing organism like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, any fungus causing ringworm through permanent slides, models, or virtual images. Comment on the synopsis of the disease that they cause. 

7. Two plants and Two animals ( models/virtual images) found in xeric conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations. 

8. Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations. 

We have mentioned the complete theory as well as the practical syllabus of class 12 Biology above. Students can refer to this syllabus which will guide them through their biology exam preparation. The above-mentioned syllabus is also the reduced syllabus so students need not worry as they can refer to this and study for their upcoming examination. Good luck!

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