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Poverty in India | Causes Of Poverty | Schemes By The government To Remove Poverty | Important Question UPSC 2020

Updated on 15 February 2020
UPSC & State PSC 2021
7 min read 38 views
Updated on 15 February 2020

Mahatma Gandhi once said that “poverty is the greatest form of violence”, and this violence is being inflicted on millions of Indians every. 

  • Topics like Poverty form an integral part of the UPSC 2020 syllabus. For more such topics related to the prestigious UPSC exam do visit study24X7. Without further ado, let’s delve into the very important topic of poverty.


Being one of the fastest-growing economies India is reducing poverty of its population at a rapid pace despite the International tensions like Trade War and the rise in isolationism in the current times 

However, several Indians are still suffering due to extreme poverty. India with its enormous resources and skills has to potential to help its entire population to overcome poverty. It indirectly slows down the economic growth of the country. 

Poverty is when an individual has lesser accessibility and affordability to certain essentials like food, clothes, a place to live in, healthcare, education, etc then he is said to be living in poverty. 

The UN and the World Bank calculate poverty through Purchasing Power Parity and a nominal relative basis. Therefore, poverty estimation differs during varying perceptions. 


This question has come in different forms in previous UPSC exams and is also part of the current UPSC syllabus

Estimation of poverty in British India: 

The first-ever poverty estimation in India was done by Dadabhai Nairobi in 1901 which was published in his book “Poverty and Un- British Rule in India” 

The National Planning Committee of 1936 has estimated poverty in India during the Colonial rule. It calculated poverty linking nutrition, clothing, and housing. This method was used in Independent India also. The poverty estimation by the National Planning Committee shows a grim picture of British India’s Economy. 


  • Increase in Population: Rapid increase in population due to a decrease in the mortality rate and an increase in the birth rate can be an asset for the Indian economy. However, at present this turning out to be a liability due to massive unemployment and an increase in the dependence on this working population. The massive population must be converted to human capital to promote the growth of the economy. 

  • Natural Calamities: In India, the maximum of the population who belong to states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh. The reason behind this is that these states are prone to natural disasters and also most of the population in these states is from ST\SC’s thus making them unrepresented. The Natural Calamities hamper agricultural progress and the economic development of these states. 

  • The rise of unorganized sectors: Many sectors in India are unorganized which brings in the problem of labor exploitation. The increase in demand for work also causes job insecurities. 

  • Inefficient use of resources: India has a large number of natural resources which if utilized efficiently without any wastage can turn into an asset. 

  • Corruption: Many measures have been taken by the government to eliminate poverty there is still a lack of political will. The corruption by those in power also contributes to poverty 

To study for UPSC Mains 2020, you should be thorough with the causes of poverty and the various scheme that the governments have initiated over time. Questions like these are asked in UPSC Prelims and UPSC Mains as well. 


  • Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana 
  • Jawahar Gram Samriddhi Yojana 
  • Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana 
  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 
  • Pradhan Mantri Kushal Vikas Yojana 

The UPSC 2020 vacancy civil services are about 896. The UPSC 2020 form last date is 3rd March 2020. Keep yourself updated regarding the examination. 

All The Best To All The UPSC 2020 Aspirants !

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